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Neutrium is a knowledge base of engineering topics, centred mainly around chemical engineering design challenges faced by engineers in their daily work. We created Neutrium to bridge the gap between theory and practice. Feel free to ask a question, leave feedback or take a look at one of our in-depth articles.
The Sherwood number is a dimensionless number that represents the ratio of convective mass transfer to the rate of diffusive mass transport and is used in the analysis of mass transfer systems such as liquid-liquid extraction. This article describes the Sherwood number and typical formulations.
The Schmidt number is a dimensionless number that describes the ratio of momentum diffusivity to mass diffusivity that is commonly used in analysis of mass transfer systems. This article describes the Schmidt Number and typical formulations.
Radiative heat transfer between two or more surfaces can be approximated using the total, normal emissivity. This article provides empirically determined total normal emissivities for a number of materials including metals, metal oxides, common building materials and paints.
At any given temperature, real materials emit less energy than that of a black body. The effectiveness of a material at emitting energy is represented by a radiative property called emissivity, which is the ratio of the actual energy emitted by the material to that of a black body at the same temperature. This article will provide an overview of the methods available for calculating the spectral, spectral-directional, hemispherical and total hemispherical emissivity for metals.
Tray efficiency measures the performance of a distillation tray or trays against the maximum theoretical performance. Similarly, a concept called Height Equivalent to Theoretical Plate (HETP) is used to measure the performance in a packed column. This article describes methods of quantifying tray efficiency in distillation tray analysis.
Relative volatility is a comparative measure of the vapour pressures of components in a liquid mixture. It is commonly used in the design of absorption and separation processes such as distillation as it allows the difficulty of separating components to be quickly assessed.
At any given temperature, real materials emit less energy than that of a black body. The effectiveness of a material at emitting energy is represented by a radiative property called the emissivity factor, which is the ratio of the actual energy emission of the material to that of a blackbody at the same temperature. This article will provide an overview of emissivity and its many formulations.
A McCabe-Thiele plot is a simplified tool to assist in understanding distillation. It is a method for calculating the number of theoretical trays required for the distillation of a binary mixture. This article describes how to apply the McCabe-Thiele method.
Distillation is a process by which a liquid mixture is separated into fractions with higher concentrations of certain components by exploiting differences in relative volatility. In industrial settings such as oil refineries and natural gas processing plants this separation process is undertaken using a distillation column. This article describes the basic principles and operation of a distillation column and the equipment and terminology used when discussing distillation.
Henry's Law describes the relationship between the solubility of a gas in a liquid and the partial pressure of that gas above the liquid surface. A range of experimentally determined Henry's constants are tabulated and can be used to determine the solubility of various gas species in water.