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Welcome to Neutrium

Neutrium is a knowledge base of engineering topics, centred mainly around chemical engineering design challenges faced by engineers in their daily work. We created Neutrium to bridge the gap between theory and practice. Feel free to ask a question, leave feedback or take a look at one of our in-depth articles.


Total Normal Emissivities of Selected Materials
Total Normal Emissivities of Selected Materials

Radiative heat transfer between two or more surfaces can be approximated using the total, normal emissivity. This article provides empirically determined total normal emissivities for a number of materials including metals, metal oxides, common building materials and paints.


Calculation of Emissivity for Metals
Calculation of Emissivity for Metals

At any given temperature, real materials emit less energy than that of a black body. The effectiveness of a material at emitting energy is represented by a radiative property called emissivity, which is the ratio of the actual energy emitted by the material to that of a black body at the same temperature. This article will provide an overview of the methods available for calculating the spectral, spectral-directional, hemispherical and total hemispherical emissivity for metals.


Distillation Tray Efficiency
Distillation Tray Efficiency

Tray efficiency measures the performance of a distillation tray or trays against the maximum theoretical performance. Similarly, a concept called Height Equivalent to Theoretical Plate (HETP) is used to measure the performance in a packed column. This article describes methods of quantifying tray efficiency in distillation tray analysis.


Relative Volatility and Activity Coefficients
Relative Volatility and Activity Coefficients

Relative volatility is a comparative measure of the vapour pressures of components in a liquid mixture. It is commonly used in the design of absorption and separation processes such as distillation as it allows the difficulty of separating components to be quickly assessed.


Emissivity
Emissivity

At any given temperature, real materials emit less energy than that of a black body. The effectiveness of a material at emitting energy is represented by a radiative property called the emissivity factor, which is the ratio of the actual energy emission of the material to that of a blackbody at the same temperature. This article will provide an overview of emissivity and its many formulations.


McCabe-Thiele Plot
McCabe-Thiele Plot

A McCabe-Thiele plot is a simplified tool to assist in understanding distillation. It is a method for calculating the number of theoretical trays required for the distillation of a binary mixture. This article describes how to apply the McCabe-Thiele method.


Distillation Fundamentals
Distillation Fundamentals

Distillation is a process by which a liquid mixture is separated into fractions with higher concentrations of certain components by exploiting differences in relative volatility. In industrial settings such as oil refineries and natural gas processing plants this separation process is undertaken using a distillation column. This article describes the basic principles and operation of a distillation column and the equipment and terminology used when discussing distillation.


Henry’s Law
Henry’s Law

Henry's Law describes the relationship between the solubility of a gas in a liquid and the partial pressure of that gas above the liquid surface. A range of experimentally determined Henry's constants are tabulated and can be used to determine the solubility of various gas species in water.


Raoult’s Law
Raoult’s Law

Raoult's law gives a method of estimating the composition and pressure of the vapour above a liquid mixture. This article describes the basis of Raoult's law and provides an example of how to apply it.


Dalton’s Law

Dalton's law provides a method by which the total pressure of a gas mixture can be calculated using the partial pressures of the component gases of the mixture.