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Piping


Erosion Velocity for Gas-Liquid Multiphase Flow
Erosion Velocity for Gas-Liquid Multiphase Flow

The flow of a gas-liquid multiphase system may cause erosion if velocities are high. This article presents an empirical relationship for estimating whether erosion will occur in a system at a certain velocity.


Speed of Sound in Fluids and Fluid in Pipes

This article provides the formulae for the calculation of speed of sound in fluids and fluid filled circular pipes. The speed of sounds is important in piping systems for the calculation of choked flow for gases and pressure transient analysis of liquid filled systems.


Pressure Loss in Hoses
Pressure Loss in Hoses

The Pressure loss through a hose is often approximated using coarse heuristics, but utilization of more accurate correlations increase the efficiency of pump and piping designs. This article presents more accurate methods to estimate the pressure loss in various type of hoses using multiples of the pipe length. Methods of estimating pressure loss caused by couplings, curves and coiled hose are also detailed.


Calculating Thermal Relief Flow Rates

For long sections of pipe, the thermal expansion of trapped liquid can be significant. It is often required that the increase in volume of the fluid be determined in order to select suitable thermal relief valves to protect the integrity of the pipework. This article details how to calculate the required relief flow rate to prevent over pressure due to thermal expansion.


Calculating Interface Volumes for Multi-product Pipelines
Calculating Interface Volumes for Multi-product Pipelines

Due to their large capital expense, pipelines are often utilized for the transfer of multiple products. During operation of these multi-product pipelines, the interface between two adjacent products extends (referred to as interface mixing), resulting in the contamination of each product. This interface is typically sent to slops collection for reprocessing or disposal at additional cost to the operator. Therefore the economics of a pipeline can often be improved through a study of product interfaces under various operational conditions to aide in the minimization of interface mixing. This article presents several empirical methods by which interface mixing can be quantified.


Birmingham Wire Gauge

Birmingham Wire Gauge (BWG), also known as Stubs Iron Wire Gauge is a system of measurements describing thickness. BWG has been historically used to describe the outside diameter of small tubes and wires, as well as the wall thickness of some large tubes (such as those used within a shell and tube heat exchanger). This article presents length conversions for BWG values into metric and imperial units.


Nominal Pipe Characteristics in Metric Units

Nominal Pipe Size (NPS) is a defined set of standard pipe sizes commonly used for process piping. NPS piping is defined in terms of a nominal diameter and wall thickness (defined by the pipe schedule). This article provides characteristics for NPS piping in metric units.


Nominal Pipe Characteristics in Imperial Units

Nominal Pipe Size (NPS) is a defined set of standard pipe sizes commonly used for process piping. NPS piping is defined in terms of a nominal diameter and wall thickness (defined by the pipe schedule). This article provides characteristics for NPS piping in Imperial units.