# Summary

This article details the most common methods to quantify the concentration of a component in a mixture, and details how to convert between these concentrations. Concentration is commonly expressed in moles per volume, mass per volume, mass percentage, volume percentage, mole percentage and parts per million. Using density and/or molecular weight properties it is possible to convert between any of the above measures.

# Definitions

 : mass of component : Molecular weight : Parts per million : Parts per million, weight basis : Parts per million, volume basis : Parts per million, mole basis : Volume fraction : Mass fraction : Mol fraction : Density or mass per volume concentration

# Concentration Conversions

Below are tabulated the concentration conversions between many measures of concentration. In all cases we are describing the concentration of substance 1 in total substance, and this is used in subscripts in the formulae below.

## Mol Fraction

Convert ToTypical UnitsConvert From Mol/Mol (x)
mass/mass*-

volume/volume*-

molar concentrationmol/L

mass/volg/L

parts per million
(ppm mol)
μmol/mol

parts per million
(ppm weight)
mg/kg

parts per million
(ppm volume)
μL/L

* multiply by 100 for mass, mole or volume %.

## Mass Fraction

Convert ToTypical UnitsConvert From Mass/Mass (m)
mol/mol*-

volume/volume*-

molar fractionmol/L

mass/volg/L

parts per million
(ppm mol)
μmol/mol

parts per million
(ppm weight)
mg/kg

parts per million
(ppm volume)
μL/L

* multiply by 100 for mass, mole or volume %.

## Volume Fraction

Convert ToTypical UnitsConvert From Vol/Vol (?)
mol/mol*-

mass/mass*-

molar fractionmol/L

mass/volg/L

parts per million
(ppm mol)
μmol/mol

parts per million
(ppm weight)
mg/kg

parts per million
(ppm volume)
μL/L

* multiply by 100 for mass, mole or volume %.

## Molar Concentration

Convert ToTypical UnitsConvert From Molar Concentration (c)
mol/mol*-

mass/mass*-

volume/volume*-

mass/volg/L

parts per million
(ppm mol)
μmol/mol

parts per million
(ppm weight)
mg/kg

parts per million
(ppm volume)
μL/L

* multiply by 100 for mass, mole or volume %.

## Mass per Volume

Convert ToTypical UnitsConvert From Mass/Volume (m1/vtot)
mol/mol*-

mass/mass*-

volume/volume*-

molar fractionmol/L

parts per million
(ppm mol)
μmol/mol

parts per million
(ppm weight)
mg/kg

parts per million
(ppm volume)
μL/L

* multiply by 100 for mass, mole or volume %.

## Parts per million (ppm mol)

Convert ToTypical UnitsConvert From ppm mol
mol/mol*μmol/mol

mass/mass*-

volume/volume*-

molar fractionmol/L

mass/volg/L

parts per million
(ppm weight)
mg/kg

parts per million
(ppm volume)
μL/L

* multiply by 100 for mass, mole or volume %.

## Parts per million (ppm weight)

Convert ToTypical UnitsConvert From ppm weight
mol/mol*-

mass/mass*-

volume/volume*-

molar fractionmol/L

mass/volg/L

parts per million
(ppm mol)
μmol/mol

parts per million
(ppm volume)
μL/L

* multiply by 100 for mass, mole or volume %.

## Parts per million (ppm volume)

Convert ToTypical UnitsConvert From ppm volume
mol/mol*-

mass/mass*-

volume/volume*-

molar fractionmol/L

parts per million
(ppm mol)
μmol/mol

mass/volg/L

parts per million
(ppm weight)
mg/kg

* multiply by 100 for mass, mole or volume %.

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