Welcome to Neutrium
Neutrium is a knowledge base of engineering topics, centred mainly around chemical engineering design challenges faced by engineers in their daily work. We created Neutrium to bridge the gap between theory and practice. Feel free to ask a question, leave feedback or take a look at one of our in-depth articles.
Raoult's law gives a method of estimating the composition and pressure of the vapour above a liquid mixture. This article describes the basis of Raoult's law and provides an example of how to apply it.
Dalton's law provides a method by which the total pressure of a gas mixture can be calculated using the partial pressures of the component gases of the mixture.
The Wobbe Index is a measure of the interchangeability of fuel gases and their relative ability to deliver energy. It gives an indication of whether a turbine or burner will be able to run on an alternative fuel source without tuning or physical modifications.
The pressure drop or flow rate through a valve or orifice plate is typically calculated using the a flow coefficient, Cv or orifice diameter. This article demonstrates how to convert between these two parameters when performing functions such as selecting a valve with an equivalent pressure drop to a given orifice plate.
The Joule-Thomson Effect describes the change in temperature of a gas as it experiences a rapid change in pressure from passing through a valve, orifice or nozzle. It may represent a safety hazard, or an opportunity depending on the process.
When examining thermodynamic processes some simplifying assumptions may be applied to help describe and analyse a given system. These simplifications can be viewed as 'ideal' thermodynamic processes and include adiabatic, isenthalpic, isentropic, isobaric, isochoric, isothermal, isentropic, polytropic and reversible processes. This article provides a brief overview of each process type and suitability to a given thermodynamic system.
Hydrate formation represents a significant risk to process safety as it can result in the plugging of both pipes and instruments. Hydrates typically form in process where light hydrocarbons, water vapor and low temperatures or high pressures are present. This article describes the conditions under which hydrates form, how formation may be prevented and what can be done once hydrates have formed.
Choked flow is a phenomenon that limits the mass flow rate of a compressible fluid flowing through nozzles, orifices and sudden expansions. Generally speaking it is the mass flux after which a further reduction in downstream pressure will not result in an increase in mass flow rate.
The flow of a gas-liquid multiphase system may cause erosion if velocities are high. This article presents an empirical relationship for estimating whether erosion will occur in a system at a certain velocity.
The discharge coefficient is a dimensionless number used to characterise the flow and pressure loss behaviour of nozzles and orifices in fluid systems. Orifices and nozzles are typically used to deliberately reduce pressure, restrict flow or to measure flow rate. This article gives typical values of the discharge coefficient for common orifice and nozzle designs.