# Welcome to Neutrium

Neutrium is a knowledge base of engineering topics, centred mainly around chemical engineering design challenges faced by engineers in their daily work. We created Neutrium to bridge the gap between theory and practice. Feel free to ask a question, leave feedback or take a look at one of our in-depth articles.

The Manning Characteristic Roughness is used to characterise the surfaces over which water can flow in streams, channels, ditches and flumes. This article presents a reference of roughness values for many common materials of construction for channels and natural formations of streams.

The Mach number is the ratio of the relative velocity of a fluid to the local speed of sound. This article provides the equation for the calculation of the Mach number and a discussion of its uses.

This article provides the formulae for the calculation of speed of sound in fluids and fluid filled circular pipes. The speed of sounds is important in piping systems for the calculation of choked flow for gases and pressure transient analysis of liquid filled systems.

The bulk modulus or elasticity is a measure of the resistance to compression of a substance. This article presents the bulk modulus for various liquids.

Standard volumetric flow rates of a fluid are often used to describe the capacity of a vent or pressure relief device. To determine how this capacity compares for another fluid under different pressure and temperature conditions a conversion must be made on the basis of equivalent pressure loss. This article describes the method for calculating the volumetric flow rate of a gas which will give the equivalent pressure drop to another gas through a fixed restriction such as a vent.

This article presents Torricelli’s law, a simplified method of estimating the velocity of fluid passing through an open orifice under static pressure.

Bernoulli’s Principal is an important observation in fluid dynamics which states that for an inviscid flow, an increase in the velocity of the fluid results in a simultaneous decrease in pressure or a decrease in the fluid's potential energy. This principal is often represented mathematically in the many forms of Bernoulli’s equation. This article presents some useful forms of Bernoulli’s Equations and their simplifying assumptions.

Algebraic expressions can often be simplified and subsequently solved through the use of the exponent laws (also called laws of indices or power laws). These laws allow an equation to be manipulated into a form which provides enhanced readability or opens up potential simplifications and substitutions. This article provides a reference for these laws.

When developing algebraic expressions it is often useful to factorise the expression to familiar components. Through factorisation, one can increases both the readability and manipulability of the expression. This article summarises the common algebra factorisation relationships.

The laws of thermodynamics are fundamental laws which describe the behaviour of heat and work in a thermodynamic system. These laws forbid phenomena such as perpetual motion machines, a hypothetical machine the development of which was pursued during the industrial revolution.