# Welcome to Neutrium

Neutrium is a knowledge base of engineering topics, centred mainly around chemical engineering design challenges faced by engineers in their daily work. We created Neutrium to bridge the gap between theory and practice. Feel free to ask a question, leave feedback or take a look at one of our in-depth articles.

The Joukowsky equation is a method of determining the surge pressures that will be experienced in a fluid piping system. When a fluid in motion is forced to either stop or change direction suddenly a pressure wave will be generated and propagated through the fluid. This pressure wave is commonly referred to as fluid hammer (also known as water hammer, surge or hydraulic shock) and typically occurs in piping systems when a valve is suddenly closed, isolating the line. The resultant surge pressures are complex to characterise but for simple systems they may be calculated using the Joukowsky equation.

The calculation of the wetted area and volume of a vertical vessel is required for engineering tasks such fire studies and the determination of level alarms and control set points. However the calculation of these parameters is complicated by the geometry of the vessel, particularly the heads. This article details formulae for calculating the wetted area and volume of these vessels for various types of curved ends including: hemispherical, torispherical, semi-ellipsoidal and bumped ends.

The transport of fluid under gravity is often achieved using partially filled pipes, channels, flumes, ditches and streams. To determine the slope and elevation change required or the flow rate that is achievable one must be able to calculate the head loss and friction factor. This article provides relationships for the calculation of head loss and friction factor for fluids flowing via these conduits.

The Manning Characteristic Roughness is used to characterise the surfaces over which water can flow in streams, channels, ditches and flumes. This article presents a reference of roughness values for many common materials of construction for channels and natural formations of streams.

The Mach number is the ratio of the relative velocity of a fluid to the local speed of sound. This article provides the equation for the calculation of the Mach number and a discussion of its uses.

This article provides the formulae for the calculation of speed of sound in fluids and fluid filled circular pipes. The speed of sounds is important in piping systems for the calculation of choked flow for gases and pressure transient analysis of liquid filled systems.

The bulk modulus or elasticity is a measure of the resistance to compression of a substance. This article presents the bulk modulus for various liquids.

Standard volumetric flow rates of a fluid are often used to describe the capacity of a vent or pressure relief device. To determine how this capacity compares for another fluid under different pressure and temperature conditions a conversion must be made on the basis of equivalent pressure loss. This article describes the method for calculating the volumetric flow rate of a gas which will give the equivalent pressure drop to another gas through a fixed restriction such as a vent.

This article presents Torricelli’s law, a simplified method of estimating the velocity of fluid passing through an open orifice under static pressure.

Bernoulli’s Principal is an important observation in fluid dynamics which states that for an inviscid flow, an increase in the velocity of the fluid results in a simultaneous decrease in pressure or a decrease in the fluid's potential energy. This principal is often represented mathematically in the many forms of Bernoulli’s equation. This article presents some useful forms of Bernoulli’s Equations and their simplifying assumptions.