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Welcome to Neutrium

Neutrium is a knowledge base of engineering topics, centred mainly around chemical engineering design challenges faced by engineers in their daily work. We created Neutrium to bridge the gap between theory and practice. Feel free to ask a question, leave feedback or take a look at one of our in-depth articles.


Blackbody Radiation
Blackbody Radiation

A blackbody is an idealized volume which emits and absorbs the maximum possible amount of radiation at a given temperature in all directions over a wide range of wavelengths. Blackbodies are perfect emitters and absorbers of radiation and therefore useful as a standard when studying radiative heat transfer systems where the amount of radiation emitted and absorbed is a also a function of material properties. This article describes the basics of a black body and presents equations to describe its emissive characteristics.


Pressure Loss from Fittings – Expansion and Reduction in Pipe Size
Pressure Loss from Fittings – Expansion and Reduction in Pipe Size

This article provides methods to calculate the K-value (Resistance Coefficient) for determining the pressure loss cause by changes in the area of a fluid flow path. These types of pressure drops are highly dependent on the geometry and are not usually covered in simple pressure loss estimation schemes (such as a single k-value, equivalent length etc.)


Pressure Loss from Fittings – 3K Method
Pressure Loss from Fittings – 3K Method

Fittings such as elbows, tees, valves and reducers represent a significant component of the pressure loss in most pipe systems. This article details the calculation of pressure losses through pipe fittings and some minor equipment using the 3K method.


Pressure Loss from Fittings – 2K Method

Fittings such as elbows, tees, valves and reducers represent a significant component of the pressure loss in most pipe systems. This article details the calculation of pressure losses through pipe fittings and some minor equipment using the 2K method.


Pressure Loss from Fittings – Excess Head (K) Method

Fittings such as elbows, tees, valves and reducers represent a significant component of the pressure loss in most pipe systems. This article details the calculation of pressure losses through pipe fittings and some minor equipment using the K-value method, also known as the Resistance Coefficient, Velocity Head, Excess Head or Crane method.


Pressure Loss from Fittings – Equivalent Length Method
Pressure Loss from Fittings – Equivalent Length Method

Fittings such as elbows, tees and valves represent a significant component of the pressure loss in most pipe systems. This article details the calculation of pressure losses through pipe fittings and some minor equipment using the equivalent length method. The strength of the equivalent length method is that it is very simple to calculate. The weakness of the equivalent length method is that it is not as accurate as other methods unless very detailed tabulated data is available.


Velocity Head

This article describes the method of calculating the velocity head of flowing fluid. The velocity head uses units of length as a measure of the kinetic energy of the flowing fluid.


Conversion Between Head and Pressure
Conversion Between Head and Pressure

This article presents the method to convert between pressure and head for several common unit sets. Head relates the pressure of a fluid to the height of a column of that fluid which would produce an equivalent static pressure at its base. It is particularly useful for the specification of pumps as it provides a measure of pressure as it is independent of fluid density.


Basics Of Affine Transformation

Affine transformations are a class of transformations fundamental to modelling objects in three dimensions. This article presents the transformation and inverse transformation matrices for translating, scaling and rotating.


Converting Between Spherical and Cartesian Co-ordinate Systems

When working on problems in three dimensional space it is often required convert between two or more co-ordinate systems. This article presents the formulae to convert between Cartesian and Spherical co-ordinate systems.