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Tag: Pressure Loss


Standard volumetric flow rates of a fluid are often used to describe the capacity of a vent or pressure relief device. To determine how this capacity compares for another fluid under different pressure and temperature conditions a conversion must be made on the basis of equivalent pressure loss. This article describes the method for calculating the volumetric flow rate of a gas which will give the equivalent pressure drop to another gas through a fixed restriction such as a vent.


Bernoulli’s Equation

Bernoulli’s Principal is an important observation in fluid dynamics which states that for an inviscid flow, an increase in the velocity of the fluid results in a simultaneous decrease in pressure or a decrease in the fluid's potential energy. This principal is often represented mathematically in the many forms of Bernoulli’s equation. This article presents some useful forms of Bernoulli’s Equations and their simplifying assumptions.


Pressure Loss in Hoses

The Pressure loss through a hose is often approximated using coarse heuristics, but utilization of more accurate correlations increase the efficiency of pump and piping designs. This article presents more accurate methods to estimate the pressure loss in various type of hoses using multiples of the pipe length. Methods of estimating pressure loss caused by couplings, curves and coiled hose are also detailed.


Pressure Loss from Pipe Entrances and Exits

When a fluid moves from a tank or vessel into a pipe system or vice versa there are pressure losses. This article provides K-values for pipe entrances and exits of various geometries. These K-values may be used to determine the pressure loss from a fluid flowing through these entrances and exits.


Pressure Loss from Fittings – Expansion and Reduction in Pipe Size

This article provides methods to calculate the K-value (Resistance Coefficient) for determining the pressure loss cause by changes in the area of a fluid flow path. These types of pressure drops are highly dependent on the geometry and are not usually covered in simple pressure loss estimation schemes (such as a single k-value, equivalent length etc.)


Pressure Loss from Fittings – 3K Method

Fittings such as elbows, tees, valves and reducers represent a significant component of the pressure loss in most pipe systems. This article details the calculation of pressure losses through pipe fittings and some minor equipment using the 3K method.


Fittings such as elbows, tees, valves and reducers represent a significant component of the pressure loss in most pipe systems. This article details the calculation of pressure losses through pipe fittings and some minor equipment using the 2K method.


Fittings such as elbows, tees, valves and reducers represent a significant component of the pressure loss in most pipe systems. This article details the calculation of pressure losses through pipe fittings and some minor equipment using the K-value method, also known as the Resistance Coefficient, Velocity Head, Excess Head or Crane method.


Pressure Loss from Fittings – Equivalent Length Method

Fittings such as elbows, tees and valves represent a significant component of the pressure loss in most pipe systems. This article details the calculation of pressure losses through pipe fittings and some minor equipment using the equivalent length method. The strength of the equivalent length method is that it is very simple to calculate. The weakness of the equivalent length method is that it is not as accurate as other methods unless very detailed tabulated data is available.


This article describes the method of calculating the velocity head of flowing fluid. The velocity head uses units of length as a measure of the kinetic energy of the flowing fluid.