When working on problems in three dimensional space it is often required convert between two or more co-ordinate systems. This article presents the formulae to convert between Cartesian and Spherical co-ordinate systems.
This article details the most common methods to quantify the concentration of a component in a mixture, and details how to convert between these concentrations. Concentration is commonly expressed in moles per volume, mass per volume, mass percentage, volume percentage, mole percentage and parts per million. Using density and/or molecular weight properties it is possible to convert between any of the above measures.