When a fluid moves from a tank or vessel into a pipe system or vice versa there are pressure losses. This article provides K-values for pipe entrances and exits of various geometries. These K-values may be used to determine the pressure loss from a fluid flowing through these entrances and exits.
Fittings such as elbows, tees, valves and reducers represent a significant component of the pressure loss in most pipe systems. This article details the calculation of pressure losses through pipe fittings and some minor equipment using the K-value method, also known as the Resistance Coefficient, Velocity Head, Excess Head or Crane method.